The Indus Valley Civilization was a cultural and political entity which flourished in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent between c. 7000 - c. 600 BCE. Rare and special foods, materials and other agricultural goods could be traded thus being the major and only booster in the Indus valley economy, meaning dependence on soil, technology and good produce was high. Coastal fishing communities were probably regularly in contact with those in adjacent areas and across the mouth of the Gulf, and those of the Arabian Sea coast of Oman may also have been in contact with others along Arabia’s southern coasts. A number of Harappan seals, beads, and ivory inlays and a Harappan weight were found at Susa, the Elamite capital, and gaming boards of similar design are known from Susa and Lothal. These continued in use into the early second millennium. The Indus Valley Civilization – also sometimes referred to as the “Harappan Civilization” for one of its primary cities – was one of the world’s first civilizations, along with Egypt and Mesopotamia. It is possible, though unlikely, that the Harappans themselves traveled to Karnataka to exploit its gold and minerals. Mesopotamia, a major consumer of raw materials from the Iranian plateau and beyond, shifted most of its interest to new sources and suppliers in the Gulf, and communications between the Indus region and Seistan ceased. About one year in four brings abnormally high or low quantities of water; the river floods unevenly, depending on where it breaks its banks; and it changes its course frequently. Also, the Mesopotamians wrote about importing goods from the Indus people which further support the idea of a trading partnership between the two civilizations. At the opposite end of the greater Indus region was the outpost of Mehgam on the southern Gujarat mainland, a site linked to the exploitation of gemstones. Ancient India Economy. In this context they may have been issued as badges of authority to merchants traveling on official business and to other individuals who needed to show their authority or prove their credentials. As it was a Bronze Age civilization. In some other cases, goods and materials are obtained by force or the threat of force, and the donor may gain little or nothing in return. They are known to have been made at Harappa and Chanhudaro. Kalibangan was therefore probably engaged in the importation of copper and copper artifacts from the Aravallis from the Early Indus period onward. Even lizards were caught and eaten. Gold dust may also have been available on the upper Sutlej. The presence of traded Indus material, such as the cache of nine hundred agate and carnelian beads at Burzahom, reflects the importance to the Harappans of Himalayan timber, exploited over a broad front. Melons were cultivated at Shahr-i Sokhta in adjacent Seistan and probably by the Harappans. Advancement of technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. Another route from the Kulli area led through the Mula Valley to the plains at Pathani Damb, site of a Mature Harappan town that may have been of considerable size. Kutch, to the north of Saurashtra, was an island in the Indus period. In the east the forests also held sal trees. From Sutkagendor westward, the South Asian coast benefited, from the sheltered sailing conditions of the Gulf. For example, Umm-an-Nar pottery has been found in Bahrain. The Economy of the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was based on agriculture and trade. were present at Mehrgarh in the fourth millennium and have also been recovered from Pirak and Late Harappan Hulas. During the fifth millennium (Ubaid period), characteristic Ubaid pottery is known right through the Gulf, from Bahrain and Saudi Arabia to Qatar and UAE. This implies that the Harappans had strong motives for trading and as traders were at least as organized and accomplished as the Mesopotamians, if not more so. Today this is around 8,000 hectares in extent. In some cases, for example at Early Indus Diwana on the upper Hab River, a dam was designed to impound water, which could be released or channeled onto fields as required. In some cases the platform may have had permanent sidepieces but many just had holes into which wooden stakes could be slotted when required to form sides supporting a load. The irrigation system allowed this civilization to diversify its crops. The western shore of the Gulf is mainly desert but settlements thrived in oases such as Hofuf and in coastal locations suitable for fishing. The extent to which hunter-gatherers were integrated into Harappan society probably varied regionally. Sumer, its southern region, saw the development in the early third millennium of city- states along the branches of the Euphrates. ADVERTISEMENTS: The economy of the Indus civilization was based on animal husbandry, particularly of zebu cattle, and on arable agriculture, growing cereals, pulses, and other plants. This is an inhospitable land. The mountains of southern Irana run parallel with and chose to the coast, leaving only a narrow strip of coastal land, accessible from the interior of the Iranian plateau only through a few passes, and offering few resources to support human habitation. Cities are the symbols of the Indus Valley civilization characterized by the density of population, close integration between economic and social processes, tech-economic developments, careful planning for expansion and promotion of trade and commerce, providing opportunities and scope of work to artisans and craftsmen etc. Animals were taken at certain times of year to graze on the expanses of seasonal pastures in Gujarat and Punjab and in the uplands of Baluchistan. Indus Valley Civilization was one of those early urban civilizations that were originated in 2300 BC which was developed in the river basins of Sutlej, Ravi, and Indus. The Harappans may also have obtained minerals from this area, including gold, silver, lead, copper, steatite, agate, and amazonite, and possibly jade from Khotan in China, a material obtained and used by the Kashmir people themselves. A different style of cart, with a short chassis, a roof, and high sides, was probably a vehicle in which people traveled. There are two reasons for this. Domestication of animals was another useful profession while they had trade relations not only with other parts of India but also with the western countries like Mesopotamia, Egypt, Crete and Sumer both by sea and land. Overland Trade across the Iranian Plateau: From the earliest period of settlement at Mehrgarh in the seventh millennium, far-reaching trade networks had given the village’s inhabitants access to the products of other regions, such as seashells from the Makran coast, turquoise from Kyzyl Kum in Central Asia, and lapis lazuli probably from Badakshan in Afghanistan. Such seals are an important source of evidence about Indus Valley civilization. The Salt Range also had copper ore and gypsum. A considerable amount of copper reached Mesopotamia from The Indus Valley was an agricultural society, but trade was very important. But the fourth and equally important one, the far more sophisticated Indus Valley Civilization, seems to have been lost to the world. If comparable documents were created by the Harappans, they were made of perishable materials of which no trace remains. Confirmation of the seasonal pattern of seafaring, at least in Oman, has come from the sites of the eastern Omani coast, such as Ra’s al-Junayz (Ra’s al-Jinz) and Ra’s al-Hadd, which were occupied only during the winter months, September to March, when they were used as a base for fishing and shell working. These may have been from either domestic or wild rice. Trade was conducted within the civilization as well as with Mesopotamia. The economy of the Indus Valley Civilization primarily depended on trade. This might be taken to indicate that the Indus people brought canal irrigation technology with them when they settled here; however, the Namazga culture in adjacent southern Turkmenia, from whom it is likely that the inhabitants of Shortugai acquired the broomcorn millet that they cultivated, had long experience of canal irrigation that may have inspired the inhabitants of Shortugai. The seasonal inhabitants of these settlements brought with them copper tools, pottery, and plant foods from the interior. In Mesopotamia, where documents were written on lay tablets, seals were also impressed on a variety of documents to identify the individuals or officials involved in, acting as witnesses to, or attesting to the accuracy of an agreement or transaction. This had the major effect of denying the Harappans access to the important and varied mineral resources of the Chagai Hills. Elam, the major state in the southwest of the Iranian plateau, had access to the sea at the head of the Gulf via the navigable River Karun but developed its main trade networks overland. Whether the Harappans traveled farther south is unknown. Whereas in earlier times, local sources of flint were exploited by the inhabitants of each region, during the Harappan period the very high-quality brownish gray flint of the Rohri Hills was intensively extracted and distributed to every part of the Indus polity, either as a raw material or in the form of finished artifacts- For example, most of the stone tools at Balakot were acquired in finished form. The Indus valley people had developed a prosperous civilization on the basis of their thriving agricultural economy. These carts were drawn by oxen or bullocks, of which there are also terracotta models. The production of cotton textiles may have meant that linen was of no interest to the Harappans. The Sumerians may also have penetrated the interior in this period. Patches of deeper sediment reflected the unpredictable distribution of channels cut by the river’s floodwaters. These crops were to set the pattern for agriculture over much of the subcontinent in later times; although rabi crops have continued to dominate in the northwest, and in many regions both rabi and kharif crops are grown. Native fruit trees included jujube, almond, and pistachio; a wooden mortar set in a grinding platform at Harappa was of jujube wood. Several varieties of turtle, crocodiles, and dolphins, as well as molluscs and fish, could be taken from rivers and lakes. Mangrove, also possibly similarly mentioned (kusabku meluhhie, “Meluhhan seawood,” alternatively identified as teak), was available along the west coast and may have been used in boatbuilding and for fuel. Administration in Indus Valley Civilization. This was not the case in the Indian subcontinent, where hunter-gatherer groups have continued to exist up to the present day. was cultivated at Surkotada and Rojdi- This may have been S. verticillata, bristley foxtail millet, also domesticated in South India during the third millennium, or S. pumila, yellow foxtail millet, both native species. The cultures who bordered the (Arabian/Persian) Gulf had a long history of intercommunity contacts, mainly be sea, going back to the fifth millennium when pottery in the style of Mesopotamian Ubaid wares was distributed as far south as Oman. Ebony was available in the forests of the Western Ghats but has not been found in Harappan sites, though it may be referred to in Mesopotamian texts as an import from the Indus (sulum meluhhi, “black wood of Meluhha,” alternatively identified as rosewood). In the Indus Valley, jewelry included not only earrings like what is pictured, but necklaces, brooches (pins you wear), and bracelets. The Indus is navigable from where it enters the plains in Punjab, south of the Salt Range. Since at least the seventh millennium, the Kachi plain had benefited from its location on a major route through the Bolan pass into the interior of Baluchistan and from there through the Quetta and Kandahar Valleys to Seistan or beyond, through the Khojak pass, to Afghanistan and Central Asia. Drawing water from them would have been a labor-intensive activity, requiring considerable animal power, though in areas subject to summer flooding only shallow wells were needed to reach the high water table. Shells, used particularly as the main material for making bangles, were gathered in large quantities on the Makran and Gujarat coasts. Marine conditions bring an abundance of fish into Arabian coastal waters during the late summer and winter, making this the main fishing season. Rice grew wild in Gujarat. Unlike the situation in the mountains and foothills of the Indo-Iranian borderlands, there is little evidence that major irrigation works were used or required over most or the Indus region. Gold from Karnataka in south India has a natural admixture of silver, and so the electrum objects known from the Indus civilization may indicate that gold from there was being imported and worked by the Harappans. It was among the cultivated plants at the Late Harappan site of Hulas where both wild and cultivated indica rice were identified. The stylistic similarities with BMAC material were particularly marked in Baluchistan and the Kachi plain, where in addition there were camel and horse figurines at Pirak after 1700 BC. Bronze is a mixture of Tin and Copper.. By the late fourth millennium, the Mesopotamians were trading with a land they called Dilmun. The Indus town of Lothal in Saurashtra lay on the border between the agricultural lands of the Indus civilization and the sparsely inhabited north Gujarat plain, home to hunter-gatherer groups, and was not far from the sea. Animals were domesticated to help with farming, but they also became a … The raw materials of different regions were also transported to other parts of the Indus realms. The establishment of new Harappan settlements along the Makran coast reflected the development of this maritime trade. Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) was domesticated in South India during the same period and is known from Late Harappan Hulas. Traffic through the Bolan pass would now have come almost exclusively from southern Baluchistan, passing through the Quetta Valley- The use of this route is indicated by the presence of Kulli material in Nausharo in the Kachi plain. Another Harappan settlement in the north was located near Mianwali bordering the Late Kot Diji territory south of the Salt Range and may have been concerned with salt procurement. One type of dam consisted of small walls built to jut out into the bed of a stream or river so that some of its water was diverted onto the ground behind the wall, depositing fertile silt that formed a small field. Little millet (Panicum sumatrense) was common at Mature Harappan Rojdi, Oriyo Timbo, and Babar Kot in Gujarat and present at Harappa around 3000 BC, and browntop millet (Brachiaria ramosa) was also grown at Rojdi. Coastal communications by sea would have linked communities within Gujarat, and those of Gujarat with those of the Makran coast. The last centuries of the third millennium had seen the emergence in northern Afghanistan of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC). A building with seven narrow rooms in this settlement may have been a warehouse for storing goods for trade and commodities received in trade. Coloured gemstones such as turquoise, lapis and lazuli wer… This name probably referred to different areas of the Gulf at different times. Teak vessels had a life expectancy of many decades, possibly as much as eighty years. Unearthed ornaments and the accessories made out of Seashells, Pearls, and beads were also traded. Locally available plants, such as indigo and turmeric, were probably used as dyes; indigo is among the plants recovered from Rojdi, and the use of madder root is attested to by the presence at Mohenjodaro of cloth dyed red with madder. Also, most of their trade takes place through water routes. Several species of Panicum were present at Rojdi, and it is possible that broomcom millet was among them. To the east of the Late Kot Diji culture area, in Kashmir, there were settlements of the Northern Neolithic culture, such as Gufkral and Burzahom. Distinctive Kulli material included many figurines of bulls and women, as well as certain forms and decorative motifs in the pottery, such as straight-sided canisters and zoomorphic designs. Agricultural economy thrived in the Indus Valley civilization.On lands surrounding the cities, farmers constructed dams and levees to channel water from the rivers to crops of wheat and barley. Small quantities of Harappan material in the Quetta Valley show that a limited amount of interaction occurred with the people of what had earlier been the Damb Sadaat region. Towns in the Indo-Iranian borderlands and Early Indus settlements in the river plains were active participants in this trade network. Tin was not used in the post-Harappan period when this eastern region was a focus of settlement, and in the first millennium BC tin was imported. Teak, generally useful and particularly suitable for shipbuilding because it is water-resistant, grew on the high ground in Gujarat, and in lower parts of the region barn grass (Sorghum halepensis) yielded tough tubular stems up to 5 meters long that were suitable for making smaller boats. These settlements were well placed to control the exploitation and distribution of timber such as pine, ebony, sissoo, and sal from the Himalayan foothills and deodar from higher in the mountains. It seems to have had a keel, a flat bottom, and high bows, with a lower stem. The Indus Valley economy was heavily based on trading, it was one of the most important characteristics of this civilization. They followed rivers walking along the river bank and used boats to cross rivers, when needed. These considerations, coupled with the attested presence of resident Harappans in Sumer, make it certain that the Harappans were trading with southern Mesopotamia for their own profit and that through this trade they acquired commodities important to them, despite the paucity of evidence for these imports. Trade routes through the major valleys of the borderlands linked the Indus Basin to Seistan and Afghanistan and beyond them to the Iranian plateau and Central Asia. Trade between these towns and Magan took place during the earlier third millennium, but the people from the Iranian plateau do not seem to have sailed farther a field. The trade network probably operated along a riverine route, particularly through Kalibangan, located some 250 kilometers to the north of Ganeshwar along the Kantali River, which was tributary to the Drishadvati in antiquity. A town was established on the coast at Qala’at al-Bahrain, where there was a good natural harbour. A small amount of Setaria sp. #indianhistory indus valley civilization people economy is dependend on their agriculture and trade. The trade in lapis lazuli seems to support this interpretation. The Economy of the Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization) was based on agriculture and trade. These were supplemented by the exploitation of wild resources, such as fish. The latter was being used to manufacture linen cloth during this period on the Iranian plateau; however, no linen has been identified from Harappan sites. When the archaeologists started exploring this place, many proofs regarding the Harappan culture and Indus Valley trade … Indus seals and weights have been found in several Kulli settlements, confirming the close economic and cultural between the Indus civilization the Kulli region. Other minerals occurring there include turquoise, sodalite (a mineral resembling lapis lazuli), zinc, gold, silver, and lead, though there is no evidence that these were extracted there during the Indus period. Abundant ragi was reported at Rojdi during the earlier part of the Mature Harappan period, from about 2500 BC onward, as well as possible ragi phytoliths in bricks and sherds at Harappa, but its presence this early is unlikely. The Indus Valley Civilization had what was called soapstone seals and this is what they might have used for money later on in the civilization. The Indus valley civilization, based on trade, craft, and agriculture, was far more egalitarian than ancient Egypt. The presence of an unbroken clay sealing could also act as a guarantee that the sealed package had not been opened or tampered with before it reached the intended recipient. As early as the Early Indus period, a trading relationship had developed between the Indus farmers and the people of the Aravallis, who had been exploiting the region’s copper since the late fourth millennium. With advances in sailing technology, the Harappans were able to trade up and down the Indus River and across the sea to Persia and Mesopotamia. Modern communities also live on houseboats on the Indus in Sindh. The use of a design on the seal would have allowed their recognition by all concerned parties, such as carriers and warehouse workers, whereas the writing could be understood only by (the probably limited number of) literate individuals. Oil could also be obtained from linseed (Linum usitatissimum), which was found at Miri Qalat and a number of Harappan sites, including Nausharo and Rojdi. It was therefore a natural port of call for seafarers sailing through the Gulf who would put in to replenish their stocks of water. The most distant (and surprising) outpost was at Shortugai in Afghanistan. The most direct and easiest sea route north followed the eastern shore of the Gulf. Advancement in technology led to carts and early boats that were used as the main method of trade and travel. Trading relations also existed between Magan and Dilmun (the Mesopotamian name for the eastern Arabian littoral and Bahrain). So, the Indus people used tools of Bronze. The Indus Valley did not have access to a lot of raw materials. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. South Indian Neolithic gold and Deccan amethyst may have been exploited and traded, ultimately reaching the Indus through exchange networks; there is no evidence of direct contacts between this region and the Indus. Coastal settlements took advantage of marine resources such as shellfish, which provided not only food but also shells, an important resource for making ornaments. Indus valley people had a good trade relations with Mesopotamian and Persian civilizations. Agricultural economy thrived in the Indus Valley civilization.On lands surrounding the cities, farmers constructed dams and levees to channel water from the rivers to crops of wheat and barley. While the productivity of the Indus in Sindh is very high, it is not reliable. Economy of Indus Valley Civilization. This fits with their sporadic appearance in South Asian botanical samples. At Rojdi in Gujarat, barley was very poorly represented in the extensive collection of botanical remains and was not cultivated after period A (2500-2200 BC), and in the Kachi plain bread wheat was more important than barley. Such foragers are difficult to identify or distinguish archaeologically from other Harappans. The seals had a semicircular perforated boss on the back so that they could be carried on a cord or fastened to a belt or wrist strap. It was a major crop in China, having been brought under cultivation in the seventh millennium BC, and was being grown as far west as Tepe Gaz Tavila in southeast Iran by the sixth millennium. In the Mature Harappan period, the route through Kalibangan (which has yielded twelve hundred Harappan copper objects) was probably used to bring copper to Harappa. Although land transport was important, particularly over short distances and between lowland and highland regions, water transport along the rivers and streams would have been easier for long distance transport, particularly of heavy or bulky goods. Important for UPSC, PCS and other competitive exams river plains were active participants in this context a Kot... Studied by Naomi Miller, who has established indus valley civilization trade and economy they might have been researched! 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